Sir CV Raman or Chandrashekhar Venkat Raman was born at Trichinopoly in Southern India on 7th Nov 1888 to a physics teacher. Being exposed to the academic environment since childhood succeeded Raman to win a gold medal in Physics from Presidency College, Madras, encouraged him to continue his research in the field of Physics only. His earliest researches on optics and acoustics- the two fields of investigation to which he has dedicated his entire career led to win a nobel prize in 1930 for his eminent discovery “Raman effect” in which he succesfully describes the inelastic scattering of a photon. Discovered by Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman in liquids and by Grigory Landsberg and Leonid Mandelstam in crystals. Sir CV Raman was the first Indian to win a Nobel Prize. Now lets discuss about the greatest discovery “Raman Effect”
In this discovery C V Raman actually proved that how the wavelength of any incident light or photon get changed due to deflection when it passed through a medium.When a light beam travels through a medium, the beam is deflected by the molecules.When light is scattered from an atom or molecule, most photons are elastically scattered (Rayleigh scattering), such that the scattered photons have the same energy (frequency) and wavelength as the incident photons. But more important he observed that a small part of the emerging light beam after getting deflected by the molecules had a different wave length from the original beam. In other words the wavelength of light after passing through a medium and being deflected by the molecules had a different wavelength.
This change in wavelength of the light beam is known as the Raman Effect and forms an important part of spectroscopy. The limiting factor for this was that the light had to pass from a dust free medium. He also observed that the entire beam did not have its wavelength changed, but only a small part.
Raman received the Nobel Prize in 1930 for his work on the scattering of light. In 1998 the Raman Effect was designated an ACS National Historical Chemical Landmark in recognition of its significance as a tool for analyzing the composition of liquids, gases, and solids.