Most of the sites of this civilization were near to the bank of Indus river & its tributaries so it is called as Indus Valley Civilization .Harappa was the first site of this civilization so it is also called as Harappan Civilization.This civilization flourished between 2300 BC-1750 BC.
– In 1826 Charles Masson was the first person to predict about this civilization.
-In 1856-57 during the construction of East Indian Railway Line (from Karachi to Lahore) Harappan civilization came in to lime light.( Actually they were using the Harappan Bricks for the construction of Railway line)
– In 1921-22 major excavation campaign was carried out for Harappan Valley civilization.
– Dayaram Sahani discovered Indus Valley Civilization/Harappan Civilization.
Races of Indus Valley Civilization
a) Dravidian’s – They were local inhabitants of India.
Characteristics of Indus Valley Civilization
a) Internal &external trades.(External trade with Mesopotamia( now known as Greece) & Persia (Now known as Iran).
b) Town Planning & religious Practices
c) Manufacturing of huge buildings
e) Drainage system
Important sites of Indus Valley Civilization & the evidences
|| Montgomery of Punjab,Pakistan
|| 1) Copper chariot2) H & R 37 Cemetery
3) Gold bracelet
4) direct trade interaction with Mesopotamia
|| Larkana District of Sindh,Pakistan
|| 1) A bronze dancing girl2)“The Great Granary”
3) Huge building-“The Great Bath”
|| 80 km south of Ahmadabad
|| 1) the dockyard2) Rice Husk
3) Game similar to Chess
|| Sindh ,Pakistan
|| 1) shell ornament makers & bead makers shop2) lipstick
|| North west of Bhuj, Gujrat
|| 1) Remains of horse
|| Ganga Nagar district of Rajasthan (now in Hanuman garh district)
|| 1) Wooden furrow2) Seven fire ALTARS
|| 1) Domestic dog buried with master
|| Approx 45 Km away from Lothal
|| 1) Rice husk
Town Planning of Indus Valley Civilization
1-Upper Town ( called as Citadel or Acropolis):-it was built on a high Podium by the help of Mud bricks. It contained large structures which might have served as Administrative Blocks or Ritual Blocks.The town was divided in to 2 parts:-
2-Lower Town:- contained residential areas.
There were 3 kinds of buildings:- Public Buildings, Residential houses & larger buildings. Buildings were mostly plain that is without any plaster on them. In order to avoid any disputes among the neighbours 🙂 houses were separated from each other by 1 feet gap.
Measurement:-10.25 * 5 * 2.5 inches they were built in the ratio 4:2:1. From Kalibanga the evidences of Ornamental Bricks found.
The Great Bath
It was constructed with “Burnt bricks”.They used it on “Ceremonial Occasions” only.
Both men & women used ornaments (evidence of “Golden Bracelet” from Harappa ). “Dancing Girl” evidence from Mohenjodaro have pony tail which indicates that women took special care of their hair style. (It means since Indus Valley civilization women were Stello & invest/waste their considerable time on themselves 🙂 )
Economic Life of Indus Valley Civilization
Economical life was totally agriculture based. Evidences of external trade with Mesopotamia & Persia were found in “Harappa”. Main crops were Wheat & Barley. Harappan people were the earliest one to produce Cotton, as cotton was first produced in Indus Valley region so greeks called it “Sindon” ( comes from Hindi word “Sindhu”)
Weights & Measurements
Weighing were mostly done in the multiples of 16 (for example if they measured in grams then 16 gm,32 gm,64 gm etc)
It was “Boustrophedon”. somewhat helical shaped, starting from left to right.
Dead bodies were generally placed in N-S orientation.Burials were of 3 types:-
1) Cremation:- It involved burning of whole -keep the urns -dispose them in ground.
2) Fractional Burial:- first they exposed the dead body to wild animals & birds & then bury the remains.
3) Complete Burial:-bury the whole body.( A coffin burial evidence was found in Harappa). Evidence of joint burial of male & female (Sati) comes from Lothal.
Religious Life of Indus Valley Civilization
No temple like structure were found instead Image worship was in vogue ( popular). Female deity were much prominent specially “The Cult of Divine Mother”. She was worshiped as Goddess of Fertility.
Pashupati Shiva:- the seal found at Mohenjodaro has a figure of male deity with 3 horned head,sitting in a yogi posture & is surrounded by- elephant,tiger,Buffalo, Rhinoceros & deers.
Trees:- they worshiped Peepal (Banyan), Neem & tulsi( Holy Basil).
Animals:- they worshiped humped bull.
Symbol:- Swastik symbol was considered as religious symbol,it was supposed to be the “Messenger of good luck.
Theories of Decline of Indus Valley Civilization
1)Massive floods & earthquake:- Postulated by Marshall.
2)Shifting of Indus river:- postulated by Cambrik.
3)Rise in Aridity:- postulated by Aggrawal & Sood.
4)Aryan invasion/Barbarian Attack:- postulated by Mortemer Wheeler.
5)Ecological Imbalance:-Postulated by B.K Thapar, Rafique Mughal(pakistan),Fair Service.