Ecosystem is the structural & functional unit of biosphere made up of living organisms & their non-living environment which interact by means of food chains & chemical Cycles resulting in energy flow.
What are the Types of Ecosystem ?
On the basis of Nature:-
1- Natural Ecosystem:- Pond, lake, desert, grassland, forest, village etc.
2- Artificial Ecosystem:- Kitchen garden, aquarium etc.
On the basis of Duration:
1-Temporary Ecosystem:- rainfed pond, culture produced in laboratory etc.
2- Permanent Ecosystem:- Forest, lake etc
On the basis of Size: An ecosystem has no definite size but it can be differentiated into
1- Micro ecosystem:- a flower pot, lab cultures.
2- Macro ecosystem:-an Ocean, Continents etc
What are the Components of Ecosystem?
A) Biotic Components :- comprises of different types of organisms.
B) Abiotic components:- Comprises of different environmental factors, inorganic & organic substances.
What are Biotic components?
All living organisms present with in the ecosystem form biotic components.These organisms can be classified in to:-
A) Producers:- these are of 2 types:
1- Photoautotrophs- produce energy from sunlight & chlorophyll by the process of photosynthesis. Examples- plants, green sulphur bacteria & some protists (euglena)
2- Chemoautotrophs:- Some Bacteria’s (iron bacteria, nitrifying bacteria etc) prepare organic food from energy released by inorganic chemical reactions,process is k/a chemo-synthesis.
B) Consumers:-they dont make their own food, depend on producers or other animals for food.These are of following types:-
1)Primary consumers:- eats plants or plant products,also k/a HERBIVORES examples:- cattle,rabbit, deer etc
2) Secondary consumers:- animals who eat primary consumers, these are k/a CARNIVORES. Examples:- cat, dog ,foxes etc. and small fish, hydra,frogs in aquatic life.
3) Tertiary consumers:- Animals who eat secondary consumers. Examples:- large fish,wolves,hyenas etc.
4) Quaternary Consumers:- Who eat tertiary consumers Examples:- Lion,tiger, whale etc.
C) Decomposers :- They obtain their energy from dead animals & plants, first they decompose the dead plants or animals into small molecules & then utilize them.Examples:-Fungi & bacteria.
What are Abiotic components?
These include non living factors of the environment such as inorganic & organic compounds & climatic factors. These factors affect different organisms differently such as plant may wither in low sunlights & archaebacteria may die at low temperature.