Ecosystem

Ecosystem is the structural & functional unit of biosphere made up of living organisms & their non-living environment which interact by means of food chains & chemical Cycles resulting in energy flow.

What are the Types of Ecosystem ?

On the basis of Nature:-

1- Natural Ecosystem:- Pond, lake, desert, grassland, forest, village etc.

2- Artificial Ecosystem:- Kitchen garden, aquarium etc.

On the basis of Duration:

1-Temporary Ecosystem:- rainfed pond, culture produced in laboratory etc.

2- Permanent Ecosystem:- Forest, lake etc

On the basis of Size:  An ecosystem has no definite size but it can be differentiated into

1- Micro ecosystem:- a flower pot, lab cultures.

2- Macro ecosystem:-an Ocean, Continents etc

What are the Components of Ecosystem?

A) Biotic Components :- comprises of different types of organisms.

B) Abiotic components:- Comprises of different environmental factors, inorganic & organic substances.

What are Biotic components?

All living organisms present with in the ecosystem form biotic components.These organisms can be classified in to:-

A) Producers:- these are of 2 types:

1- Photoautotrophs- produce energy from sunlight & chlorophyll by the process of photosynthesis. Examples- plants, green sulphur bacteria & some protists (euglena)

2- Chemoautotrophs:-  Some Bacteria’s (iron bacteria, nitrifying bacteria etc) prepare organic food from energy released by inorganic chemical reactions,process is k/a chemo-synthesis.

B) Consumers:-they  dont make their own food, depend on producers or other animals for food.These are of following types:-

1)Primary  consumers:- eats plants or plant products,also k/a HERBIVORES examples:- cattle,rabbit, deer etc

2) Secondary consumers:- animals who eat primary consumers, these are k/a CARNIVORES. Examples:- cat, dog ,foxes etc. and small fish, hydra,frogs in aquatic life.

3) Tertiary consumers:- Animals who eat secondary consumers. Examples:- large fish,wolves,hyenas etc.

4) Quaternary Consumers:- Who eat tertiary consumers Examples:- Lion,tiger, whale etc.

C) Decomposers :- They obtain their energy from dead animals & plants, first they decompose the dead plants or animals into small molecules & then utilize them.Examples:-Fungi & bacteria.

What  are Abiotic components?

These include non living factors of the environment such as inorganic & organic compounds & climatic factors. These factors affect different organisms differently such as plant may wither in low sunlights & archaebacteria may die at low temperature.

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