What do you mean by Conservation of biodiversity?
Conservation of biodiversity means the management of biosphere by man in such a way that maximum benefit is derived from it while maintaining its potential to meet the requirements of future generation.
What are the objectives of Conservation of Biodiversity?
1- To preserve the diversity of species(genetic pool) of world’s organisms.
2- To maintain essential ecological processes and life supporting systems.
What are the Methods of Conservation of Biodiversity?
These can be broadly classified as:
1- In Situ Conservation
2-Ex Situ Conservation
What is In Situ Conservation?
In this type of Conservation, species of wild animals and plants are conserved in their Natural Habitats.
What are the ways through which wild life is conserved In Situ?
The common natural habitats that have been set for in situ conservation are :
2- Wild Life Sanctuaries
3- Biosphere Reserves
4- Several wetlands, mangroves and Coral reefs.
5- Sacred grooves and lakes.
In situ conservation also includes the introduction of plants and animal species back into agricultural, horticultural, and animal husbandry practices so that they are cultivated/reproduced for their re-use by people.
What are National Parks?
National park is a tract of land reserved and maintained by a national government solely for the welfare of entire wild life in it.
Operations such as plantation, Cultivation, grazing are not allowed in National Parks.
Private Ownership rights are also not permitted in National Parks.
What are Wild Life Sanctuaries?
A Sanctuary is an area reserved for the conservation of animals only.
Operations such as procuring timber and minor forest produce and private ownership rights are allowed provided they don’t affect the animals.
What is a Biosphere Reserve?
It is a specified area in which multiple use of the land is permitted by dividing it into zones , each for a particular activity.
Zones of a Biosphere Reserve.
1- Core Zone- No Human activity is allowed in the core zone.
2- Buffer Zone- Limited human activity is allowed.
3-Manipulation Zone- Several human activities are permitted in this zone.
What are Sacred Grooves and Lakes?
These are the places that are around places of worship. These are held in high esteem by tribal communities or central government.
Such Sacred grooves are found in several regions in India, such as Khasi and Jaintia hills in Meghalaya, Western Ghat regions in Maharashtra etc.
Tribal’s don’t allow to cut even a single branch of tree in these sacred grooves.
Some water bodies (e.g Khecheopalri in Sikkim) are also held sacred in many places. Their Flora and Fauna are Naturally preserved.
What do you mean by Ex Situ conservation?
In Situ conservation is not a viable option for most of the rare species.In natural habitats species may decline due to several reasons such as habitat loss, competition from exotic species, diseases as well as over exploitation.
Under these circumstances, alternative method of conservation of species is Ex Situ conservation. It involves cultivation of rare plants and rearing of threatened animal species in Botanical and Zoological Gardens respectively.
Plants are preserved in the form of seeds in seed banks by the means of Tissue Culture technique.
Gene banks are also maintained to preserve rare plant and animal species.In vitro Conservation especially Cryopreservation is a useful technique for preserving vegetatively propagated crops, sperms, eggs, cells and embryonic tissues of animals at -1960 C temperature.